1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical
and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to
understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.
Vocabulary and Concept Development
1.1 Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry.
1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand
1.3 Clarify word meanings through the use of definition, example, restatement, or contrast.
2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)
Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and
connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their
knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended
Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity
of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students
read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of
grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary
literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade seven, students make
substantial progress toward this goal.
Structural Features of Informational Materials
2.1 Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose between various
categories of informational materials (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, instructional manuals,
2.2 Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.
2.3 Analyze text that uses the cause-and-effect organizational pattern.
Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author's argument, point of view, or perspective
2.5 Understand and explain the use of a simple mechanical device by following technical
2.6 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of the author's evidence to support
claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping.
3.0 Literary Response and Analysis
Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature
that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas
and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in
Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the
materials to be read by students.
Structural Features of Literature
3.1 Articulate the expressed purposes and characteristics of different forms of prose
(e.g., short story, novel, novella, essay).
Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
3.2 Identify events that advance the plot and determine how each event explains past or
present action(s) or foreshadows future action(s).
3.3 Analyze characterization as delineated through a character's thoughts, words, speech
patterns, and actions; the narrator's description; and the thoughts, words, and actions
of other characters.
3.4 Identify and analyze recurring themes across works (e.g., the value of bravery, loyalty,
and friendship; the effects of loneliness).
3.5 Contrast points of view (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective
and objective) in narrative text and explain how they affect the overall theme of the work.
3.6 Analyze a range of responses to a literary work and determine the extent to which the
literary elements in the work shaped those responses.
1.0. Writing Strategies
Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students'
awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting
evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process
Organization and Focus
1.1 Create an organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses
effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas.
1.2 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and
1.3 Use strategies of notetaking, outlining, and summarizing to impose structure on composition
Research and Technology
1.4 Identify topics; ask and evaluate questions; and develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation,
1.5 Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a
consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations.
1.6 Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop
simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports.
Evaluation and Revision
1.7 Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the
ideas and the precision of the vocabulary.
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to
700 words in each genre. The writing demonstrates a command of standard American
English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing
Using the writing strategies of grade seven outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Write fictional or autobiographical narratives:
a. Develop a standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and
denouement) and point of view.
b. Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
c. Use a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue; suspense; naming of specific
narrative action, including movement, gestures, and expressions).
2.2 Write responses to literature:
a. Develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
b. Organize interpretations around several clear ideas, premises, or images from the
c. Justify interpretations through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.
2.3 Write research reports:
a. Pose relevant and tightly drawn questions about the topic.
b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
c. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g., use of a
card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalog, magazines,
d. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and a bibliography.
2.4 Write persuasive compositions:
a. State a clear position or perspective in support of a proposition or proposal.
b. Describe the points in support of the proposition, employing well-articulated
c. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments.
2.5 Write summaries of reading materials:
a. Include the main ideas and most significant details.
b. Use the student's own words, except for quotations.
c. Reflect underlying meaning, not just the superficial details.
Written and Oral English Language Conventions
The standards for written and oral English language conventions have been placed
between those for writing and for listening and speaking because these conventions are
essential to both sets of skills.
1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions
Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions appropriate
to the grade level.
1.1 Place modifiers properly and use the active voice.
1.2 Identify and use infinitives and participles and make clear references between pronouns
1.3 Identify all parts of speech and types and structure of sentences.
1.4 Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotation marks, commas at end of dependent
clauses) and appropriate English usage (e.g., pronoun reference).
1.5 Identify hyphens, dashes, brackets, and semicolons and use them correctly.
1.6 Use correct capitalization.
1.7 Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of bases and affixes.
Listening and Speaking
1.0. Listening and Speaking Strategies
Deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the
background and interests of the audience. Students evaluate the content of oral
1.1 Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker's
claims and conclusions.
1.2 Determine the speaker's attitude toward the subject.
1.3 Respond to persuasive messages with questions, challenges, or affirmations.
Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication
1.4 Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background
and interests of the audience.
1.5 Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively
in relation to the audience.
1.6 Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation,
and eye contact, for effective presentations.
Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications
1.7 Provide constructive feedback to speakers concerning the coherence and logic of a
speech's content and delivery and its overall impact upon the listener.
1.8 Analyze the effect on the viewer of images, text, and sound in electronic journalism;
identify the techniques used to achieve the effects in each instance studied.
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)
Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical
strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates
a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery
strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.
Using the speaking strategies of grade seven outlined in Listening and Speaking
Standard 1.0, students:
2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:
a. Establish a context, standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action,
climax, and denouement), and point of view.
b. Describe complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
c. Use a range of appropriate strategies, including dialogue, suspense, and naming of
specific narrative action (e.g., movement, gestures, expressions).
2.2 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books:
a. Include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
b. Use the student's own words, except for material quoted from sources.
c. Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details.
2.3 Deliver research presentations:
a. Pose relevant and concise questions about the topic.
b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
c. Include evidence generated through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card
catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, computer databases, magazines, newspapers,
d. Cite reference sources appropriately.
2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations:
a. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal.
b. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence.